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> ბროშურა აფხაზეთ-სამაჩაბლოზე (პოლიტიკოსთათვის), დავწერე რუს, ინგლ. ფრნგ. ენ-ზე. გავარჩიოთ აკად
niniaa
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გამოგზავნილია: 24 Sep 2008, 00:16  #10962067      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · ელფოსტა
დღეს წავიკითხე ერთი სტატია და საკმაოდ გავოცდი-ერთის მხრივ იმით,თუ რა ძლიერია რუსული პროპაგანდა დასავლეთ ევროპაში,მეორეს მხრივ კი ქართული ლობის არარსებობით.
აერდე-ს ეთერში(გერმანიის პირველი არხი) ყოფილა ინტერვიუ 26.08.08, *ორი კოსოვო კავკასიაში?*... და მოკლედ დავწერ ამ ინტერვიუს შესახებ:
Otto Luchterhandt,პროფესორი ჰამბურგის უნივერსიტეტში, ამტკიცებს რომ სახელმწიფოებრივი კრიტერიუმები აფხაზეთში შერსულდა,რაც შეეხება 250 000 ქართველი დევნილის დაბრუნებას აფხაზეთში-მათ აღარ აქვთ უფლება აფხაზეთში ცხოვრებისა,მეტიც ქართველი დევნილებს ამ პროფესორმა დამნაშავეები/ბოროტმოქმედები უწოდა-რაც იმით ახსნა,რომ დევნილები ქართულ პოლიციას ეხმარებოდნენ,მეზობელ აფხაზებს თავს ეცემოდნენ-ამის გამო მოუწიათ ეთნიკურ ქართველებს აფხაზეთიდან გამოდევნა,აფხაზებმა დაკარგეს ქართველების ნდობა და ამ ხალხის ერთად ცხოვრების შანსი პრაქტიკულად აღარ არსებობსო...

ARD-ს ამ ინტერვიუმ მიაღწია,რაღა თქმა უნდა,მილიონობით მაყურებელების ყურებამდე/თვალებამდე. გაჩნდე ახალი ვერსია:*250 000 ქართველი,რომლებიც 15 წელია გაჭირვებაში ცხოვრობენ,თავიანთ სახლებში დაბრუნების უფლება არა აქვთ,დაუხოცეს ახლობლები,ნათესავები,ოჯახის წევრები- არის ბოროტმოქმედები.
Otto Luchterhandt-ის აზრით,ამ დევნილმა ხალხმა ეს *დაიმსახურეს* კიდეც.

ყველაზე გასაოცარი,რაც არის-ამ ინტერვიუს არ მოჰყოლია არანაირი გამოხმაურება ქართული საზოგადოებიდან ან საქართველოს საელჩოდან გერმანიის ფედერაციულ რესპუბლიკაში. აშკარაა რომ ქართველებს გერმანიასა და საერთოდ,დასავლეთ ევროპაში არანაირი ლობი აქვთ,თან თუ რუსული ძალების ორგანიზებულობასა და სტრატეგიულობას გავითვალისწინებთ.

Herr Luchterhandt-ის ინტერვიუს მალევე მოჰყვა შედეგი... ინტერვიუს დამთავრებიდან 23 წუთში ვიკიპედიაზე ერთ-ერთმა ავტორმა *სიმართლე აფხაზეთზე* ზემოთაღნიშნული პროფესორის *ნააზრევი* წყაროდ გამოიყენა და მილიონობით მკითხველს დაეხმარება იმის გაგებაში,თუ რატომ არ შეიძლება 250 000 ქართველის აფხაზეთში დაბრუნება.

დაწვრილებით წაიკითხეთ აქ:

http://www.georgien-nachrichten.de/index.p...n&nach_id=14396




აუცილებელია ერთად ვიმოქმედოთ...
ვინც რუსული იცის,შეეცადოს რუსულ საიტებზე დატოვოს კომენტარები,მაგრამ არა ისეთი,როგორც შეჩვეული ვართ-ანუ,თქვენი დედა,ღორებო,მონღოლებო და ბოლოს თვითკმაყოფილი ჩაესვენოს სავარძელში და შემდეგ ამით თავის მეგობრებთან *იბლატაოს*.
შევეცადოთ უცხოურ ფორუმებზე აქტიურობას,ნუ დავჭამთ ერთმანეთს აქ,ცოტათი დავეხმაროთ შვენს ინტერესებს...


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რა შეიძლება/უნდა გაკეთდეს იმისათვის,რომ ასეთ ინტერვიუებს როგორც მინიმუმ პასუხი მაინც მოჰყვეს ჩვენგან...
P.s. ეს წერილი ვნახე ფორუმზე და საჭიროდ ჩავთვალე აქაც დამედო.

This post has been edited by niniaa on 24 Sep 2008, 00:21
niniaa
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გამოგზავნილია: 25 Sep 2008, 13:18  #10978639      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · ელფოსტა
სიმართლე აფხაზეთის შესახებ შეგიძლიათ აქ დადოთ:
http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/...,575238,00.html
badriko
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გამოგზავნილია: 25 Nov 2008, 20:57  #11650323      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · ელფოსტა
აი, უკვე გავაკეთე წიგნი (ერთმა რეგვენმა ორთვიანი ბანი დამადო, ვისარგებლე და დავწერე)
და ეხლა უკვე სტილისტურად და გრამატიკულადაა გასასწორებელი ის. სწორდება კიდეც.

აგერ სათაური და საძიებელიც.

GEORGIA – VICTIME OF RUSSIAN AGGRESSION


(Abkhazia and South Ossetia: actuality and history,
maps, documents, comments)











PARIS



2008


The maps and documents are compiled and the comments are supplied by Dr. B. G., INALCO and EPHE, Paris.

This work is addressed to Strassburg and the Hague courts, to the Geneva Conference (on Georgian question), to the Security Council of UN, to the EU, to the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, to the Russian Duma, to Presidents of European countries, to Presidents of the USA, Russia, to other political organisations and persons, interested by peacefully and correct resolvement of the Russian-Georgian conflict.
There is a danger that the West will once more betray Georgia and the Georgian people. At first, it happened in 1801 when the Tsarist Russian empire illegally annexed the Kingdom of Georgia: no one country protested. Secondly, when the Soviet Russia annexed in February 1921 the DR of Georgia, the Antanta, which before this annexion recognised Georgia, declared only its concern about russian annexion. Thirdly, the problem exist since 1993 year, when Russia annexed the two regions of Georgia but the West traditionally did not put Russia under serious pressure. Moreover, when Georgia was refused in 2007 in Budapest NATO meeting the MAP, Russia took this decission as the weakness of the West and as the green light for further occupation of Georgia and organised the third military intervention in Georgia in August 2008, during the Pekin Olimpic games and several months before the NATO members decissive meeting on Georgia’s adhession to NATO.
In order to make a pressure on Russia on the Georgian question, the EU halted the economical deals with Russia but the Kremlin leaders continue their antigeorgian destructive military, economical and political policy and hope that the West traditionally will concede in Georgian question, as it was in 1938, when the West pardoned to USSR the annexion (1921) of DR of Georgia and closed the “Georgian question”. In 1938 the West needed the USSR as the ally against fascist Italy and Germany , but actually it seems that the Russian gas and petrol will be used as the arrangement with the EU. So the Western soft position on Georgian question will help Russia to destruct once more Georgia.

This book clearly shows the historical, juridical, cultural and ethno-political belonging of Abkhazia and the South Ossetia to Georgia as well as the illegal and criminal aspects of the russian aggression and pretention on these ethnically cleaned georgian regions through the illegal “recognition” of their independence




Chapitres

Chapter I - The historical premisses of russian aggression and the fall of Abkhazia…..………13
Chapter II - The Russian military preparation, bombings and occupation of some regions of Georgia (1992-2008)…………………………………………………………………………………42
Chapter III - The genocide of Georgians made by Russian army, russian, ossetian and abkhaz terrorists …………………………………………………………………………………………….53
Chapter IV- The “arguments” of Separatists in favour of independence of the most privilegious Autonomous Republic in World - Abkhazia, “oprimed” by “nationalist” Georgi……………..66
Chapter V - How Russia took out the North Caucasians from progressive georgian influence, enslaved them and set against Georgia……………………………………………………….…...89
Chapter VI - From robbery of some chapters of ancient history of Georgia by russian and abkhaz historians to the genocide and expulsion of Georgians from Abkhazia……………….112
Chapter VII - Freezen conflict as result of indifference of the West. From the « peace plans » till russian recognition of Abkhazia and ex South Ossetia………………………………………130
Chapter VIII – History of Abkhazia………………………………………………………….…..139
Chapter IX - The point of view of Ossetian separtatists and our comments on that ………….185
Chapter X – History of Samachablo (the South Ossetia)………………………………………..205

THE MAPS (and some ducuments)

- Reconstruction of the World by Hecataeus, Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny (VI B. C. – 1 A. D)…215
- Map of Black Sea Basin (I. c. B. C.) after Ortelius, fragment (1590)………………………….223
- The Fragments of Maps by Pomponius Mela (Ic.) and Germanius (XV c.)…………………..224
- Fragments of Ptolemy’s map (IIc)……………………………………………………………….226
- The map showing the Kingdom of Abkhazia and Kartli X-XI cc…………………………….228
- The Georgian coins with mention of Abkhaz (Western Georgian) kings, XII c……………...230
- The map of united Kingdom of Georgia (XIII c)……………………………………………….231
- The Roman map of the World (Old Russian version), Fragment, XIII-XVIIIcc…………….232
-The fragments of the maps of M. Sanudo (c. 1320), A. Dulcert (1339), Soleri (1385)………...234
- The map of Moscovia after S. Herberstein (1526 or 1549)…………………………………….240
- Fragments of the maps of Battista Agnese (1553) and Jacopo Maggiolo (1563)……………..241
- Mercator’s maps fragment (1554)……………………………………………………………….242
- The Black Sea map drawn by Diego Homem (1559)…………………………………………...243
- Fragments of two maps of Gastaldi (1561)……………………………………………………...246
- Map after Pedrico Sarbolani, fragment (1570)…………………………………………………247
- Map of Russia, fragment (1614)…………………………………………………………………248
- Georgia after the Asian map by N. Sanson d’Abberville, fragment (1650)…………………..250
- Bitchvinta (Pitsunda) temple before (i. e. Georgian) and now (i. e. modificated into russian architecture), 1650 year and XX c………………………………………………………………...251
- the playing cards of Pierre du Val (1654)……………………………………………………….253
- Map of Archangelo Lamberti (1654)……………………………………………………………254
- Map of Christoporo Castelli (1654)……………………………………………………………..256
- Map of Jean Chardin (1672) …………………………………………………………………….257
- Two Asian Maps of Guillaume Sanson, fragments (1674)…………………………………….258
- Map of Nicolas de Fer, end of XVII c…………………………………………………………...260
- The detail from the Globe made by V. Coronelli (1693)……………………………………….261
- Map of Henselius, fragment (c. 1710)…………………………………………………………..262
- The map of Europe by Justus Danchers, fragment (1720) ……………………………………264
- Maps of Georgia after Guillaume Delisle, fragment (1723) and H. Jaillot (1696)……………265
- Map of Russian Empire (c. 1725) drawn for Peter the Great (fragments)……………………267
- Map of Imeretian (West Georgia) Kingdom, fragment, 1732…………………………………268
- The toponymical table composed by G. Kerr, 1732……………………………………………269
- Maps of Georgia drawn by Vakhushti Bagration, 1735 (fragments), and by Delisle (1738)...271
- Arms (emblems) of Georgian Provinces according to V. Bagration, 1735……………………274
- Arms of some Georgian governor dynasties……………………………………………………275
- Map of Russian empire, drawn in 1793 for Cathrine II (fragment)………………………......276
- Map of Georgia, Second half of XVIII c………………………………………………………...277
- The Growth of Russian empire in Europe, 1300-1796 (fragment)…………………………….278
- Map of Russian subcolonel Verkhovskiy (Abkhazia, Mingrelia) fragment, 1817-1819……...279
- Map of Russian subcolonel Verkhovskiy (Georgian Osetia), fragment, 1817-1819………….280
- The oath of Samurzakano’s Nobility given in 1815 to Prince of Mingrelia (Signatures)……282
- Map of Georgian Provinces after Robert Ker Porter, fragment (1821)………………………284
- Map drawn in by Russian general Khatov, fragment (1826)………………………………….285
- Map of Europe after Willliam Spooner, fragment (1842)……………………………………..287
- Map of European Russia after French general Lapie, fragment (1842)……………………..288
- Map of Abkhazia (1843)…………………………………………………………………………289
- Octopus map by Frederick Rose, 1877…………………………………………………………291
- Angling in troubled waters by Fred W. Rose, 1899…………………………………………….292
- A Humpreus diplomatic Atlas of Europe and Asia, 1904……………………………………...293
- Act of Restoration of Independence of Georgia, May 26, 1918………………………………..294
- Map of the “Lands of Mountainous peoples” by Russian subcolonel Tomkiev, 1901………296
- The map of inexistant Republic of the Mountainous peuples of Caucasus (RMPC), 1919….298
- Map of Georgia after V. Babet (1920)…………………………………………………………..305
- The territorial looses of Georgia during the Sovietisation (1921-1931)……………………….306
- The telegram of Stalin on unification of the two Ossetia………………………………………309
- Ossetian Migrations or the myth how Georgians “bilt” the Caucasian range for separate Ossetian people in two parties…………………………………………………………………….310
- From the antic Alan (ossetian) carts to Russian tanks or the map of “Great Osetia” according to dream of separtists, 2008……………………………………………………………………….311
- Participation of the Russian army in the war against Georgia (Abkhazia), in 1993………...313
Annex – the articles from the World Press………………………314

This post has been edited by badriko on 25 Nov 2008, 21:01
BAUSHKE_
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გამოგზავნილია: 26 Nov 2008, 00:26  #11653347      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · ელფოსტა
QUOTE (badriko @ 19 Sep 2008, 20:48 )
რაც შეეხება რადვანს და მის ანტიქართულ გამოხდომებს

ეს კაცი არც მე მომწონს, არადა სულ ესაა ტელევიზორში, როცა საქმე საქართველოს ეხება. რატომ? ვისი ბრალია ეს?


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Junge19



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გამოგზავნილია: 26 Nov 2008, 04:58  #11655457      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · ელფოსტა
QUOTE (niniaa @ 24 Sep 2008, 00:16 )

P.s. ეს წერილი ვნახე ფორუმზე და საჭიროდ ჩავთვალე აქაც დამედო.

შენ ნამდვილად არ ''მესიმპატიურები'' ფორუმზე და კარგი იქნებოდა თუ ჩემ მიერ ნათარგმნ ''სტატიას'' ''ავტორსაც'' მიუწერდი...




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მ ა თ ქ მ ე ვ ი ნ ე თ!
მ ა თ ქ მ ე ვ ი ნ ე თ!
მ ა თ ქ მ ე ვ ი ნ ე თ!
მ ა თ ქ მ ე ვ ი ნ ე თ!
საბუნია
Down Is The New Up


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გამოგზავნილია: 26 Nov 2008, 05:10  #11655483      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · icq · yim · msn
badriko

ჩემი რესფექთები შენ smile.gif up.gif


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Hello I am Simon, the smart one!
ფარსმანი
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გამოგზავნილია: 26 Nov 2008, 06:51  #11655574      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა
badriko
გაიხარე
ძალიან კარგ საქმეს აკეთებ


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Time
badriko
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გამოგზავნილია: 23 Dec 2008, 20:28  #11998006      · პროფილი · პირადი მიმოწერა · ელფოსტა
СКП России опубликовал новые данные о событиях в Южной Осетии
15:43 23/12/2008

МОСКВА, 23 дек - РИА Новости. Следственный комитет при прокуратуре (СКП) РФ имеет основания полагать, что военная агрессия Грузии против Южной Осетии может квалифицироваться как геноцид югоосетинского народа, заявил председатель СКП Александр Бастрыкин во вторник в РИА Новости на презентации книги "Осетинская трагедия. Белая книга преступлений против Южной Осетии, август 2008 года".
Книга подготовлена Кириллом Танаевым на основании фактических материалов уголовного дела по факту военной агрессии против Южной Осетии и содержит данные о военных преступлениях грузинских военных против мирного населения Южной Осетии и российских миротворцев.
"У нас есть основание в будущем говорить о квалификации действий военного руководства и армии Грузии как действия агрессивного характера, которые были направлены на уничтожение югоосетинского народа как национально-этнической общности", - сказал Бастрыкин. При этом он отметил, "что для признания факта геноцида важно не количество жертв, значение имеет умысел, цель, мотив - субъективная сторона преступления".
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აი, მე უკვე დავწერე ის წიგნი, რომელიც ზემოთ გამოვაქვეყნე, ერთი ეგზემპლიარი არის კიდეც თბილისში.

აქეთ არ მირეკავენ, იქით მრავალჯერ დავრეკე, ვითხოვ, შექმნან ჯგუფი სეასწორონ, ჩაასწორონ, გამოსცენ და მიახალონ მტერს შუბლში!

ასეთი წიგნი, თან ინგლისურად ჯერ არ დაწერილა ამ ემაზე.

კიდევ დავიცდი ცოტას.

შემდეგ კი,

ხომ იცით შალვა ნუცუბიძის სიტყვები :

ფურთხის ღირსი ხარ საქართველოოო..

ბევრი რამ არ დაუფასეს, არადა კარგ საქმეებს აკეთება.

შალვას არ ვედრები, უბრალოდ მისი სიტყვები მოვიტანე.

რაც შემეხება მე, უცხოელები მეუბნებიან, თავი დაანებე ამ საქართველოზე უსასყიდლოდ თავის მტვრევას, მუშაობას.

იცხოვრე შენი ცხოვრებაო...

კიდევ ცოტას დავიცდი და შემდეგ

შალვას სიტყვებს საყოვეთაო გინებასაც მივაყოლებ.

და საერთოდ დავივიწყებ სიტყვას საქართველო!

15 წელია უფასოდ ვმუშაობ ამ ქვეყნისათვის და

და მადლობა რომ მადლობაა, ამააც არ მეუბნებიან.


ან აფხაზეთ-სამაჩაბლოს საკითხზე ჩემს მიერ დაწერილზე უკეთესი მაჩვენონ და არაფერს ვიტყვი.


აი, ბატონო.

კიდევ ერთი თავი:
* * *
ეს ახალი თავი ჩავამატე.

როგორც ხედავთ ჩემი ინგლისური გრამატიკულად გასასწორებელია, მაგრამ მაინც ვდებ აქ.
იმედია, არ დამძრახავთ.

Chapter IV


The ethnic composition in Abkhazia.
Expel and genocide of Georgians made by invader Apsua
(actual Abkhaz) tribe there in last centuries


In antiquity, Sukhumi was as important as Rome: Sukhumi (Dioscuria) is told a colchian city and has been established by the sons of Zeus, Rome – by the son of Jupiter. In Strabo’s epoch in Dioscuria market gathered the great deal of traders and clients, there one could listen about 200 different languages. However, today the Georgian refugees (the descendants of the Ancient Colchians) do not live in their native Sukhumi and Abkhazia! Why?!
Can you imagine to live together with dangerous beasts in the same cage ?
Can you imagine living together with beasts in one and same city, even in Sukhumi, called also Sebastopolis, i. e. “Royal city” (in Greek).
Sukhumi N-1 School was three storied beautiful building. It was Georgian school. I use the word “it was”. Yes, 15 years before it was Georgian school, now it is Abkhaz School. This is a some sort of abkhaz revenge: the Abkhaz separatists accuse Georgians for closing Abkhaz schools in 1940’s.
It is wrong. The schoolbook in technical disciplines were not existent in 1940’s and Abkhazs teachers asked Georgians for the Georgian technical school books for the senior pupils. The Georgian pupils themselves had not the enough number of such books but they shared with Abkhaz pupils them. Later, when Khrushtchev threatened Georgians to incite against them Abkhazs, the thesis about “closing by Georgians of Abkhaz schools” are circulating. Instead of gratitude, Georgians were accused for nothing.
In 1989, in Sukhumi State University Georgian students and professors were abused, mistreated by Abkhaz colleagues. Georgians were forbidden to speak, to choose, to vote for their Georgian candidates, to dense and sing Georgian dances and songs, to write in Georgian in University press, etc. Thus, Georgians decided to leave the both building of Abkhaz University and took the refuge in Sukhumi N-I school’s building. There was no place but the school pupils and teachers have warmly accepted Georgian refugees. In July 15, were fixed the entrance exams for future students. Georgians have paralysed the Abkhaz University after its abandon. The Abkhazs requested from Georgian slaves to return in Abkhaz University. They did not tolerate the existence of a new University in Sukhumi. They decided to destroy it.
Instead of exams, the nightmare took place in 15 July 1989. Abkhazs encircled the school building, mistreated and kicked everyone there, gave to fire the documents, destructed the busts of great Georgian poet Shota Rustaveli and Georgian writer Ilia Chavchavadze.
About two hundred Abkhazs, armed by iron steaks and stones and purchasing about one thousand Georgian professors, students, entrants to University and their parents. The Rustaveli littoral of Sukhumi was unusual to see: the fugitive Georgians and purchasing them Abkhazs. In that day have been killed 11 Georgians and 6 Abkhazs. Abkhazs also destructed the bust of Georgian poet Akaki Tsereteli.
During the study at school, our teachers told us about the knighthood and hospitality of Abkhazs. Alamis, in Abkhaz language this nice word signify the “Abkhaz conscience”. However, in 1989 we discovered that the reality was other. Our doubt was strengthened in 1992-1993 when the war in Abkhazia took place.
We demanded ourselves: what is hidden in reality under Alamis, under Abkhaz knighthood, hospitality?
Nothing remained from them.
Wither did they exist before?
One can imagine to fire down the enemy, but wither is possible to imagine their corpses hanged in the trees of the parks and streets of cities in the eve of XIX century.
One can imagine to fire down the parents in front of little children, but can you imagine the opposite, i. e. to fire down the children in front of parents (and then also to kill the parents became mad)?
One can imagine when someone kill a pregnant neighbours, but how you do order us imagine these murder extracting the little babies from the stomachs of dead women and playing a little scientist in anatomy, abusing with these foetus ?
One can imagine gathering the group of young and elder peoples in order to brought them away and then gun down in the streets but why putting the Georgian (Svanian) hats in way leading till place of massacre?
One can imagine when someone cut a head to their neighbours, but how can imagine when they and foreign mercenaries play football with these heads in city stadium?!
One can imagine cutting a throat to enemy but why drinking his blood ?
Can you imagine a young girl cut in two parts and marked as fallows : “as you can not join and make alive this girl you can not unite Abkhazia with Georgia” ?
Can you imagine asking to mother: choice, which one from your sons you gave us for execution?
Can you imagine peoples threw alive in well?
Can you imagine the peoples tied to tanks, tractors and cars and trained until their death?
Can you imagine binding the elder couples in their beds and then burn down them with their houses?
Can you imagine peoples put into the car wheels, bound and then burn them alive?
Can you imagine the girl raped by thirty persons and then to cut her in dozen peace?
Can you imagine keeping only children, women and elders in the camps of concentrations and then firing down them?
Can you imagine…
Can you imagine…
Can you imagine…
Can you imagine…
Can you imagine…
These are a part of fantasy and imagination of Abkhaz beasts undertaken against the peoples for only purpose: to eliminate more and more Georgians possible.
These evidences are given not only by Georgians but also by the persons of other nationalities, including by Russian journalists and politicians.
Since 1993 until now, the Abkhaz separatists impede the implantation in Abkhazia of the international police forces that can guarantee and secure the return of escaped Georgian refugees in their homes, in Abkhazia.
This is a some sort of suit of the Abkhaz imaginations, certainly; more civilised.
Such was the situation in Abkhazia from the XIV century.
Wither Georgians can live together with the people with animal instincts and cavern mentality?
The Georgian academician Niko Berzenishvili note : « In feodal epoch the mountaineer Abkhazs come down in Abkhazia in several waves. One of such wave would be gone down in XIII century, when because of the pressure of the Golden Orde the Caucasian tribes went down from the North Caucasus in south direction… The process of settlement of the mountaineer Abkhazs continued during the next centuries. In XV c., this process would have left rather far (sakmaod shors kopila tsasuli)… In XVII century the new wave of hiller Abkhazs would be gone down, and this wave still more reinforced the new settlements of Abkhazs » .
The documents and authors of the Middle epoch and latter period (Schiltberger, Lucca, Lamberti, Castelli, Chardin, Zampi, Dositheos, Macarius, Paul of Aleppo, Qatib Tchelebi, etc) also confirm the expansion of Abazs (Apsua). Evlia Chelebi (XVII c.) wrote that "the principal tribe in Abkhazia is Chach (this population was located between Kodori and Enguri rivers and belonged to prince Sharvashidze, - B.G.), who speaks in the same Mingrelian language, which is spread on the opposite side of the Phasis river " . Abaz tribe assimilated later Chach tribe.
Now with the help of Russians, the Apsua (actual Abkhazs) try to capture some villages even in the right bank of Enguri. In 1780, the Apsua tried to seize Zugdidi with help of Turks. If they were managed to do it at that time, the Abkhaz and Russian historians today would consider Zugdidi as Apsua city.
According to the map of Christoporo Castelli (1654), the wall (mentioned also by A. Lamberti), carries an old French inscription: "Wall of sixty thousand [steps] for stopping of the incursions of Abbassas" (see their maps here published). Castelli put the "Abaschi hodie Abbassa " in the Caucasian hills. Nevertheless, "the mountains of the Caucasus are protected by the strong mingrelian king" (N°473). Castelli also says that the Abkhaz prince Beslacus Cirvasia (Sharashia // Sharvashidze) lives in the mountains of Circassians ("Beslacus Ciruasia, Princeps Abasgorum. Monti di Cherchasi "N°466). Mentioning Svanes and the names and the first names purely Mingrelians, Castelli confirms the fact of the existence of two senses of the ethnonym "Abkhaz". It also shows the fact of Abazification. Castelli wrote (N°270): "Tvalikaka Gimetia. Of the Abkhaz nationality. In the mountains of Georgia (…) the faces of his wife and her children (…) resemble to Brolia: Brolo, chemo saqvarale, sagorontos mogena” (i. e.: "Brolo! My lover, they resemble the angels”, in Mingrelian, - B.G.). Thus, Tvalikaka Gimetia had Georgian first name, Georgian name, spoke in Georgian but his nationality (tribe belonging) is wrote down as being Abkhaz! Yes, he was Abkhaz but in Georgian sense and not in Apsua (Abaz) sense. This is the most interesting example of the process of apsuan assimilation. According to Christoporo Castelli, the Akhali Atoni (actual Novii Afon) Monastery belonged to David Chidjavadze. Castelli wrote that Sukhumi (Sebastopolis) "was in Colchida. Nowadays the city is deserted "(N°556). Sukhumi was several times attacked by Apsua, during XIV-XX centuries. In XIX century they target were Russian garrison, before and after that century, the Georgian population was targeted.
The Georgians considered the Apsua (new Abkhazs) in general as the abazinized Georgians, i. e. the local Georgians who were assimilated by Northern Caucasian Abaz invaders. For exemple, for the Georgian ambassador S.–S. Orbeliani (XVIII c.), Abkhazs are Georgians, but they also has their own language (Apsua // actuial Abkhaz). After arrival of Turkish and Russian conquerors, Abkhazia gradually is considered as non-Georgian province. For the founder of the Russian historiography, Vasili Tatishchev, “Abkhazia is part of Mingrelia”.
Here, we propose to examine some Georgian ecclesiastic documents. One document composed in Pitsunda in 1525-1550 years and entitled as “Bitchvintis Iadgari” are mentioned the inhabitants of Abkhazia. All of them bear Mingrelian names and surnames: Gamkervalia, Shamigia Tchutchuria and Datia (in Tkauru), Egviptia and Tchkhunburia (in Marmaris Kari). According to document, the next villages surrounded Pitsunda: Aruxa, Rabitsa Aitarne and the mountain Zetis Khilovani . All names are Mingrelian or have Mingrelian form (Egvipt-ia). The same document is joint by the text written later, between 1611-1614 years. This interpolation testify that around the Pitsunda Monastery lived : the aznaur Kaka and Khutu Djaiani, the peasants: Grigil Gogolda, Lominia Gogolda, Mikhlia Changelia, Qvaqvalia Shantai, Mikalandi Pivlia, Vagitchordi Kvika, Obishkhua Pelia, Matchikholi Tchania, Babilia Khutu .

One document, composed in XVI c. by of Mkheidze Nikoloz, the Mitropolite of Bedia, mentions the local peasants : Ujamishi Bokuchava, Babua Pelangua, Babakochi Dadalia, Sharia Khvicha, Sharia Lomati, Sharia Khukhu, Antonia Mamulia, Babakochi Mamulia. The same document name Bidzgu Baidia as inhabitant of village Gudava .

In the book of Catholicosate of Abkhazia composed in Georgian in the last period of XVI century. According to this imposition list of the Catholicosate’s peasants of Najaneuli village (it is part of the Tchala village or actual Tchlou village in Abkhazia) are Georgians // Kartvelians:
“Shushania, Djgviburia Toliokro, Subukia Temna, Djakobia Gugutia, Mtchishia Kakauri, Varsimea Uchaia, Khvarashia Uchaia, Mamishuri Uchaia, Sokherdia Uchaia, Tolskvamia Uchaia, Gabriela Didia, Katsibaia Kodua, To[l]mikhila Elishia, Gulaba Elishia, Rusakia Martsvalia, Matupia Shuritoli, Mamismama Goguilava, Shuritoli Gogilava, Samelia, Mamismama Grubelaia, Mamasperi, Tchutcha Gurua, Tsistaria, Tsistaria Mamismama, Inali Kodia, Ivane Kodia, Tolibedi Kodia, Deismama Kadjaia, Kurtskhai Logua, Gabelia, Shia Kadjaïa, Gutia Khukhushia, Djguburia Nikolaa, live four family servant Dzadzua, four family servant Kondjaria, three family servant Phiolia, Ivane Davitia; There are in Khoiri village 28 family peasants of Catolicosate” .
In this surnames and names is put an answer to question : who were the ancient Abkhazs ? Georgians lived in Tchala also in XIV century. It is proved by the local church which beared, before occupation of Abkhazia by Russians and Apsua separatists, the next ancient Georgian inscription: "Eristhav of the eristhavs, Mandaturtukhutsesi Dadiani. God, our Lord, be blessed "!

Now let’s examine the ethnic composition of the same village in 1621, according to the “Defter of the imposition of the Catolicosate of Abkhazia”. Thus, in Najaneuli lived the next peasants : Mikhilia Uchia, Zaqaria Uchia, Tolioqro Djakobia, Gurmikhili Uchaia, Mirchqilia Uchaia, Djge[ri]kochi Didia, Orqolei Kodia, Djguburia Gurishia, Djguburia Nakagmeliu (i. e. “who live in opposite side”), Bubutia Subuqia, Sokherdia Shushania, Iane Shushania, Ivane Shushania, Kochivara Kuatara, Bakhuta Didia, Kochilei Didia, Mtchitanaa Charachu, Abramias’ shvili (i. e. (“chilran”), Gabriel Dzadzua, Abram Dzadzua, Irdashela Dzadzua, Ingaria Dzadzua, Marsalia Samelia, Tolioqro Gogilaa, Khukhuria Gogila, Matopia, Mestumria Kadjaia, Kochila Markozia, Totibaia Djomnia, Midziruda Tsikutia, Gvanashai Bagudzla, Kotchola Grublaia, Gechi Grublaia, Gemtchishia Gurua, Tolimapu Khistaria, Mestumria Datia, Kochia Tsistaria, Tolishia Logua, Matchikhola Kodia, Solerdia Kodia, Bubutia Kodia, Mikhilia Kodia, Marsalia Rusaqia, Kochila Elishia, Tolmikhila Elishia, Uskuamada Elishia, Mamalei Kondjaria, Giorgi Kondjaria, Khakhuta Kondjaria, To[l]skuamia Kondjaria, Gvianisha Kondjaria, Djvitishia Tolioqro, Mirchqilia Piolia, Goroshia Kotaria, Tchutchu Kontaria, Uchia .
Now, let’s examine the ethnic situation in the same village at the beginning of the XVIII century, i.e. two centuries later.
Grigol Lordkipanidze, the Catholicos of Bitchvinta (Pitsunda) wrote in 1706 : "Population of Najaneuli is expelled by Abkhazs. The Catholicos Nepsadze gave sixty inhabitants [of the village] to Kwapu Charvachidze (one of the Abkhaz governors with georgian origin, - B.G.) (…) and some other mingrelian refugees were sent to be inhabited in the villages of Khibula and Khobi (in Mingrelia, - B.G.)… I gave to this inhabitant, expelled by Abkhazs, one uninhabited field", - wrote the Catholicos Gr. Lordkipanidze . Kwapu Sharvashidze is Georgian, he protect the population of Najaneuli from Abkhazs (Apsuas). As we see, the population of the village Najaneuli (Tchlou), has been still Mingrelian in XVI century, it was expelled and assimilated by Apsua in 1706. Now, the name Najaneuli does not exist as well as the Georgian population is absent in this village. The new patrons there actually are Abkhazs and Russian citizens.
As we can constate in 1621 year the surnames and names of the inhabitants of this village are Georgian, especially Mingrelian. There are no single Apsua peasants because the ancient Abkhazs were Georgians and they spoke in Mingrelian dialect, as it is shown, for example, by the surnames of peasants of cited Najaneuli village. As far the names, they are as well as Kartvelians, but only seven among them are borrowed from Greek and Jewish (Gabriel, George, Nicolas, Ivan, Elishia, Abraam and David). For determination of the ethnic belonging the surnames represent the decisive factor. But even 99% of the names of these peasants who lived in abkhaz village are Georgian, especially Mingrelian. We would like to translate all of them before telling that no one of them can be explained in Apsua (actual Abkhaz) language! Even the name Inal is Mingrelian (mo-inal-e, “servant”) and either was borrowed by Alans and Abazs (in Nart epic) or has no etymological ties with them. Thus, here we enumerate the names and surnames and their Georgian (Mingrelian) translations:

Mikhilia (“see me”) Djakobia (“tree cutter”)
Gurmikhili (“look my heart”) Djge[ri]kochi (“good man”)
Didia (“great”) Orqolei (“gold one”)
Gurishia (“belonging to heart”) Subuqia (“light, not heavy”)
Kochivara (“he is not a man”) Kuatara (“he has not a penis”)
Bakhuta (“don’t asphixy him”) Kochilei (“lame”)
Mtchitanaa (“red”) Irdashela (“let him growth”)
Ingaria (“who cry”) Mestumria (“who visit me”)
Midziruda (“let me to see you”) Gemtchishia (“who perform, is in time”)
Gurua (“who study”) Tolimapu (“I’ve see it”)
Khistaria (“branch of tree”) Tolishia (“belonging to eye”)
Matchikhola (“swallow”) Solerdia (“where you has been”)
Mikhilia (“see me”) Tolmikhila (“see me with your eye”)
Uskuamada (“not beautiful”) To[l]skuamia (“with beautiful eye”)
Gvianisha (“who is later”) Mirchqilia (“listen me”)
Goroshia (“who look for”) Toliokro (“golden-eyes”)
Mtchishia (“who is in time”) Varsimea (“he is nowhere”)
Uchaia (“black”) Khvarashia (“stomach”)
Mamishuri (“soul of father”) Sokherdia (“where did you sit”)
Tolskvamia (“beautiful eyes) Skuamili (“beatifull one”)
Katsibaia (“male”) Kodua (“cut”)
To[l]mikhila (“visible by eyes”) Martsvalia (“grain”)
Shuritoli (“soul-eye”) Mamismama (“father of father”)
Samelia (“drunker”) Grubelai (“cloud”)
Mamasperi (“colour of father”) Gurua (“heart”)
Tsistari (“stick of sky”), Inali (“servant”),
Tolibedi (“destiny of eye”) Deismama (“father of aunt”)
Kadjai (“crazy”) Kurtskhai (“awaked”)
Shia (“is hungry”) Gutia (“let him go”)
Kondjari (“hurt, insult”) Piolia (“with long ear, beloved”)
The rest of names and surnames also are Georgian but their etymology is more complexe. The patriarch Macarius (XVII c.) wrote that the most Georgians had strange names and not the names of the Saints.
Here are the 1621 year inhabitants of the village Tchala Wala (in Georgian and Mingrelian the toponym signify “thicket, spinney”, “bushy”) which got in XIX century the Apsua form Tchlou:
Khutsesi Gogordava, Gvata Gogordava, Mikhilia Chaglia, Bishkhuplia, Machirkholi Tchania, Shurimidgi Palia, Gichordi pxa, Margia Kvartskha, Lortegi Bibilia .
So, in 1621 year in Tchala lived only Georgians. There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name. Actually, there live some Georgians who are terrorised by Abkhaz militsia obliging them to burn georgian documents and accept Russian passports or the Abkhaz identity card (both documents are illegal in Georgia). Georgians massively change their nationality. Lakoba wrote in 1926 that in Abkhazia several thousand Abkhaz persons speak only Mingrelian.
Such was the ethnic situation in whole Abkhazia in XVIII-XIX centuries and such is in the beginning of XXI century. Some Georgians became and until now is becoming Abkhazs because of material purposes (today only Abkhazs but not Georgians can to have houses, several houses in Abkhazia), other Georgians were forced to accept the Abkhaz nationality (if not they would be forced to leave Abkhazia) or has been assimilated by Abazs after XIV century. Namely this mixt Abazo-Georgian population formed after XIV century the Abkhaz people in Abkhazia. According to Anthropologists, Abkhazs in anthropologic viewpoint are Georgians, according to linguists the Abkhaz language is practically same as the Abaz.
The majority of inhabitants of the village Khoiri // Okhore oxore (actual Okhurei, in Ochemchire district) , where in August 14, 1992, the illegal Abkhaz Guard open fire on the Georgian policemen was in general Georgan. Before XVIII century it was inhabited only by Georgians but After there had appeared the Apsuas. In 1621, the Georgian ecclesiastic documents cite the name and surnames of this village:
Khakhuta Didia, Kakacha Chagua, Gogia Chagua, Ukulashi Lasuria, Uskuama Lasuria, Mikhilia Muzurgania, Mamulia Tsebelara, Djergeshia, Gurmikholi Chagua, Khukhuli Chagua, Kakalia Chagua, Babadia Kunia, Djita, Djuarisa Djita, Grigolia Vajoba, Gokurckhia Grigolia, Skuamilei Djikia, Gamigoni Bichvaia, Mashutia Didia, Toliokro Didia, Gavasheli Damikochia, Dabala and Prguna, Khukhulia Ambalia, Khutses Ambalia, Ivane Ambalia, Gamigona Djomnia, Vajikochi Djomnia, Mkhiarula Kakua, Ishamorta Kakua, Moirdina Kakua, Kuria, Khukhinia Djakobia, Kosataia, Khakhutia Gamkverlia, Khergua .
The catholicos Malakhia wrote in the composed in 1616-1639 years book of donations to Pitshunda monastery that in Khoiri he “bought the lend from Mingrelians” (“xoirs... sasaxle adgili viyide megrelebisagan”) in order to bild a palace . As we see, all inhabitants of Khoiri had Georgian names and surnames. There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name.Actually, there live only Abkhazs.
We see the same thing in the village Subvi (Subeishi) and Mukhuri where in 1621 year lived only Georgians (Taimaz and Kerabin are borrowed turkish names):
Taimaz Kitia, Kuakualia Kitia, Kerabin Kitia, Mamulia, Kitia, Babakvia Kitia, Shurimidgi Kitia, Pertia, Djgerikochi Kitia, Dzgirua, All Kitia, Elidjara Kitia, Gavasheli Kitia, Amugabar Kitia, Gavasheli Amilgambari, Korchulua Kekgrdzeli, Mamashi Korcholua, Kaka Djakonia, Vajoba Djakonia, Palishia Djakonia, Machachva Djakonia, Tena Djakonia, Babadishi Djakonia, Skuamili Djakonia, Kodzira Djakonia, Sanatreli Guadjagia, Gotinaria Makhutia, Matulia Artonia, Gago Artonia, Kuerkelina Kitia, Mikholia Kitia, Khvingia Utskinara, Mika Mikelia, Shurimidgi Mikelia, Uchalei Bigua, Kristeshia Artonia, Guguria Djimia, Subei Guadjagia, Demetre Kitia, Toskuamia Petria, Demetre Kitia, Pirnate Kitia .
There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name. Actually, there live some Georgians who are terrorised by actual Abkhaz militsia who oblige them to burn Georgian documents and accept Russian passports or the Abkhaz identity card (both documents are illegal in Georgia).
Here are the 1621 year inhabitants of the village Khaujeli xauJeli, xuJoli (in Megrelian the toponym signify “to turn”):
Khutses Vardania, Kakalia Vardania, Vartagania, Parsmania, Bagia Mitanapi, Gindzia, Chokua, Kukua, Kukaa, Ivana Kukaa, Talaber Tsebelaria, Dalaba Khalibesshvili, Gachirdia Tseblaria, Gugurishi Tseblaria, Kakalia Tseblaria, Gatsirel Tseblaria, Daskurda Tseblaria, Zangelar Tseblaria, Girdia, the seconde Girdia, Gairchkinde Salatia, Uchardia Salatia, Toskuamia Dushia, Dzuka Dushia, Mamaia Dushia .
So, in 1621 year in Khaujeli lived only Georgians. There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name. Actually, there live some Georgians who are terrorised by actual Abkhaz militsia who oblige them to burn georgian documents and accept Russian passports or the Abkhaz identity card (both documents are illegal in Georgia).
Here are the 1621 year inhabitants of the village Gupu gufu (in Megrelian the toponym signify “the warm place”):
Makhu Vardania, Giorgi Vardania, Guchuro, Sabedo Vardania, Mikhilia Vardania, Tena Shonia, Skumashia Vardania, Midzguabla, Khvitia Miseria, Mamikordi Niseria, Kakhaber Niseria, Uchardia Shonia, Utskinar Niseria, Kakalia, Niseria, Aspandeli Sharina, Machirkholia, Tsitsa Niseria .
So, in 1621 year in Gupu lived only Georgians. There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name. Actually, there live some Georgians who are terrorised by actual Abkhaz militsia who oblige them to burn georgian documents and accept Russian passports or the Abkhaz identity card (both documents are illegal in Georgia).
Here are the 1621 year inhabitants of the village Tiliti TiliTi (in Megrelian the toponym signify “the part”, Tili) which change its name in XIX century for Apsua word Abaajvakhu (“the forteress”):
Tipshkhua Khutsesi, Mritishia Tipshxua, Iese Tipshkhua, Nanartia Tipshkhua, Djgerikochi Tskuria, Sordi Tskuria, Mikhilia Shunia, Shorda Gulua, Tutashxia, Gulua, Mikhilia Stepanaskiri, Shuritoli Stepanaskiri, Tasia Cherchia, Kutulia Stepaneskiri, Babashuri Jvaneskiria, Badia Momardia, Mordilia Bulia, Tutashkhia Kupacha, Toliskuami Paja, Toliskua Kirchkheli, Kagara Jvaneskiria, Tolskuamia Xuxua, Khukhuloba Zarkua, Uchakochi Shantia, Khukhua Torodjia, Guagualia Sharinava, Bartime Sharinava, Lominia Tsiskarava, Shuritoli Marulava, Mama Shunia, Toskvamia Makhalia, Shurimidgi Chkhirua, Bebili Shunia, Orkoia Girgolava, Vargibia Girgola, Tauzar Girgola, Pirnate Girgola .
So, in 1621 year in Tiliti lived only Georgians. There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name. Actually, there live some Georgians who are terrorised by actual Abkhaz militsia who oblige them to burn georgian documents and accept Russian passports or the Abkhaz identity card (both documents are illegal in Georgia).
Here are the 1621 year inhabitants of the village Tkavru tkavru // tyayuru (in Mingrelian the toponym literally signify: “deaf forested area”, i. e. “dense forest area”) which got after 1654 year another Mingrelian name Tkuarcheli tyvarCeli (i. e. “the stood captives”):
Tavaza Shambia, Mashutia Shambia, Kuakualia Shambia, Uchakochi Chuchuria, Gavasheli Datia .
So, in 1621 year in Tkavru lived only Georgians. There are no single Apsua (actual Abkhaz) surname or name. Before the genocide (1993) of Georgians, in particular, in 1989 year, there lived 21.000 peoples whom 42.3 % where Georgians and 23.4 % where Abkhazs. Actually, there live only Abkhazs.
Many other documents of XVII c. also shows, that in Abkhazia lived only Georgians. For exemple, one document belonged to Levan II Dadiani state that the Georgian peasants lived in the villages of Abkhazia. In particularly in Galidzga lived Paraskia Alexandria parasqia aleqsandria, in Reka Khakhutai Koma xaxutai koma, in Ilori Gomidzula Tsatsalua gomiZula wawalua, in Tiliti Elidjari Changelia elijari Cangelia, in Kamuleti Gurmikhili Kubetsia gurmixili kubecia, in Martskheuli Gurmukhili Esebia gurmixili esebia, in Zegani Mutagigun Khubilava muTagiRun xubilava, in Analkia Kochilai Chodia, Fatsulai Tsatsulua koCilai Codia, faculai wawulua, etc . Another document of the same Mingrelian prince enumarate the next inhabitants of Galidzga: Moirdi Kvirkelia, Uskvama Kvirkvelia, Gvianishi Chagaloskiri, Berusua Chagaloskiri . When the princess Nestan-Daredjan, wife of the prince Levan II Dadiani dead, he buried her in Kiachi. One more document testify that Levan II dadiani imposed оброк on the inhabitants of the village Kvitauli (Totodji Davitia, Gaizardi Apia, Anchibukhu Chkhangua, Bebelia Bagatelia, Masi Bagatelia, Apakidze) for funeral of the princess .

The Above mentionned surnames and the villages are Georgian (mostely Mingrelian) and geographically they were in the territory of actual Abkhazia. The majority of these surnames and part of names are specific only for The mantioned territory, Abkhazia. Some Mingrelian surnames existed only in Abkhazia and they were spreaded in the other regions of Georgia fron the beginning of XIX century. To such surnames belong the following exemples: Abashia, Ablotia, Anua, Ardashelia, Bebua, Bekveria, Buliskeria, Basaria, Vardania, Gamsakurdia, Gamisonia, Gargulia, Gurgulia, Garmelia, Gvargvalia, Gvatua, Gochava, Djandjulia, Djindjolia, Djondjua, Djguburia, Djedjia, Djigania, Djumutia, Dzagania, Dzadzua, Dzandzava, Kakava, Kadjaia, Kvekveskiri, Kikolia, Kilanava, Korsantia, Lamandzia, Lepsaia, Markhulia, Markelia, Melia, Mindjoraia, Morokhia, Mirtskhulava, Nikoria, Orjonia, Papaskua, Rechia, Rigvava, Sarua, Sekania, Sirginava, Sondzia, Sopia, Torua, Tungia, Tupuria, Kvachakhia, Kurdagia, Shakaia, Sharangia, Sharia, Chekheria, Chkhvirjia, Chkotua, Tsitava, Tsatsua, Tsikolia, Tsobekhia, Tcharaia, Chilava, Cholaria, Elerdjia, Eteria and many others .

After the migrations of some Abaz tribes from the North Caucasus in present day Abkhazia, i. e. from the beginning of XVI century the region is settled dowv by the new inhabitants who has another type of Surnames and names. The Abkhaz people has the great deal traditions about their norther origin. 145 years old Abkhaz Majagv Adleiba tald in 1934 year to Abkhaz S. Basaria that the first abkhaz (Apsua) inhabitans of Abkhazia were : Agrba, Adleiba, Inapshba who came from Crimea: “our ancestors emigrated (from Karachai) in Abkhazia when they learnt that the population of Abkhazia was spread and Abkhazia bacame desert” .
The Abkhaz traditions testify the migration of Abkhazs from Sochi region in Abkhazia. The Abkhaz historian Shalva Inal-Ipa wrote that Achba, Marshan, Kapba, Adleiba, Inapshba came in Abkhazia from the Northern Caucasus . D. Gulia, A Pakhomov also sertify this fact by other traditions and sources . In 1929 the Abkhaz linguist A. K. Khashba wrote that some Samurzakanians took their origine “from the Western part of Abkhazia and Circassia” .
Thus, the Abaz colons invaded Abkhazia in large scale, firstely, in the first part of XVII c. the North-West part of Abkhazia till Kodori river, then, in the last period of XVII c. it destructed the Great « wall bilt against the abaz invasion » and seized the territories till Enguri river, i. e. actual Gali district as well as part of actual Ochemchire district.
There is not in Abkhazia the demographical data until XIX century. In XIX c. some sources impresiousely indicate the ethnical composition of Abkhazia. Sometimes the Gali region (i . e. Samurzakanian) inhabitants are described as Georgians, sometimes as Abkhazs. The Abkhaz historians considere the Geli region population as Abkhazs and gave the falsificated datas. In fact these inhabitants were and stil now are Georgians. It is enough to go in Gali region and to ask to its inhabitants. In 1989 year
That’s why the Abkhaz and the Georgian historians present the different datas for 1886, 1897 and 1926 year sensus as far as the ethnical composition of Abkhazia.

Here we propose the Georgian and Abkhaz view points on this question :

Year 1886 1897 1926 1939 1959 1989
Georgians 34.806 44.882 71.954 91.967 158.200 239.800
Abkhazs 28.320 39.600 51.458 56.197 61.000 93.200

Year 1886 1897 1926 1939 1959 1989
Georgians 4.166 25.875 67.494 91.967 158.200 239.800
Abkhazs 58.963 58.697 55.918 58.197 61.000 93.200

It is enough a simple regard to the proposed schemas to remarque that the point of view of Abkhaz historians has no ground and are falsificated. For 1886 year sensus, in Abkhazia lived 3.474 Mingrelians and 30.604 Samurzakanians (i. e. Georgians) and totally it is 34.078 Georgians. But the Abkhaz historians these 30.604 Samurzakanians include in Abkhaz population and artificially increase its number until 58.963 person.
In spite of ethnical changes, the kartvelian (georgian) element every time was predominant in Abkhazia. In the second half of mentioned century the Muhadjirstvo (i. e. exile and emigration of muslim Abkhazs from Abkhazia in Turkey) serieusily diminished the nomber of Apsua population but the great part of Muhadjirs came back to Abkhazia.
The Russian government tried also diminish the nomber of Georgians in Abkhazia. In that purpose thousends of Georgians were written down as Abkhazs. In 1927 Nestor Lakoba admitted that « several thousand of peoples consider themselves as Abkhaz but their language is not Abkhaz but Mingrelian » .
According to the documents of XIX century there are in Abkhazia the Apsua population with its abaz and Circassian surnames and names. As Abkhaz people was formed on the ground of assimilation of Abazo-Circassian colonists and local Western Georgian (historical Abkhazs, as well as Mingrelians, Svans) population, the Abkhazs has both Georgian and North Caucasian surnames.
But about 80 % surnames of actual Abkhazs are Georgian (about 450 surnames) and only about 20% has Abazo-Circassian and other origine. The Svan Academician Teimuraz Mibtchuani specialy studied this question.
He published the Abkhaz surnames whu has Georgian, North Caucasian and other origins .
The Georgian Surnames which exist also among actual Abkhazs are:

Abakelia Abashia Abashidze Agrba Agumava
Adamia Akirtava Akobia Alasania Ablotia
Anua Ardashelia Amilakhvari Apkhazava Aristava
Antelava Anchabadze Ardjelia Arsalia Archania
Asatiani Akhalaia Akhaladze Akhvlediani Ashkharava
Ashkhatsava Ashkhakalia Babadushi Barkaia Bargandjia
Barkalaia Baramia Basilaia Bakhia Badia
Benia Beraia Berulava Beselia Beslandze
Bigvava Bjalava Bjania Bebia Bebua
Bodjgua Bokuchava Bukia Buava Bekveria
Buliskeria Basaria Gabelia Gablia Gablaia
Gabiskiria Gabisonia Gabrava Gabraia Gabria
Gabunia Gagua Gadelia Gadlia Gamgia
Gamisonia Gamsakurdia Garmelia Gartskia Gargulia
Gvadzabia Gvadjalia Gvazava Gvalia Gvaramia
Gvasalia Gvindjia Gvichia Gegenava Gedjua
Geria Gerkhelia Getia Gigiberia Gindia
Gobechia Goginava Gogiladze Gogia Gogokhia
Gogua Golandzia Gondjua Gochua Grigolia
Gubaz Gublia Gugunava Gugushvili Gamzardia
Gulia Gulua Golordava Gulordava Gularia
Gunia Gurdjua Gurgulia Gurtskaia Gvargvalia
Gvatua Gochava Davitaia Damenia Darsalia
Darsania Dartsmelia Dgebia Devidze Djaparidze
Djibladze Djigania Dzagania Djandjulia Djindjolia
Djondjua Djguburia Djedjia Djenia Djigania
Djumutia Dzagania Dzadzua Dzandzava Dzidzaria
Dochia Duduchava Dumava Dundua Dondua
Iashvili Kakava Kadjaia Kvekveskiri Kakalia
Kakuchaia Kakubava Kalandia Kalichava Kamkia
Kantaria Kardava Karchava Kartskhia Kaslandzia
Kartozia Katsia Kachabava Kvabandzia Kvaratskhelia
Kvasia Kvarchelia Kvarchia Kvatsabaia Kvachakhia
Kurdagia Kveskveskiri Kvikvinia Kvitsiani Kedia
Ketia Kiziria Kilasonia Kiladze Kilanava
Kilinava Kirtava Kintiraia Kikolia Kilanava
Kirtadze Kirkitadze Kobakhia Kogonia Kolbaia
Korsantia Kokoskeria Kontaria Kondjaria Kortava
Kotua Kubrava Kuprava Kurdagia Kuraskua
Kutelia Kuchava Kuchuberia Kukhaleishvili Labakhua
Lagvilava Lazaria Lazba Lamandzia Lasuria
Lataria Lagidze Lepsaia Logua Lobjanidze
Lolua Lomaia Lamandzia Lepsaia Markhulia
Markelia Malia Melia Managadze Margania
Markholia Markhulia Markelia Marshava Marshania
Matua Makharia Matchavariani Mebonia Meladze
Melia Minadze Mindjia Mindjoraia Mikava
Mikia Mekvabia Morokhia Mindjoraia Morokhia
Mirtskhulava Mertskhulava Mkhondjia Nakopia Narmania
Naroushvili Ninua Nishaniani Nikoria Nodia
Nozadze Odisharia Okudjava Osia Ordjonikidze
Ordjonia Ochigava Pazilishi Palandzia Pantia
Pantsulaia Panava Papaskiri Papaskua Patia
Patsatsia Pachulia Pachalia Pertia Pertaia
Pilia Pipia Ramanidze Rekvava Rechia
Rigvava Rostobaia Sabua Sabekia Sagaria
Salakaia Salia Samsonia Sanaia Sanikidze
Saria Sarsania Sarua Sasania Sakania
Sekania Sirginava Sichinava Sondzia Songulia
Rechia Rigvava Sarua Sekania Sirginava
Sondzia Sopia Tabagua Tambia Takaishvili
Tania Taria Tarnava Tkebuchava Torua
Torchinava Torchua Topuria Tupuria Tungia
Shakaia Sharangia Sharia Sarashia Sarashidze
Shervashidze Shakaia Shamatava Shoua Chekheria
Chkhvirjia Chkotua Tsaava Tsaguria Tsabria
Tsvinaria Tsetskhladze Tsatava Tsatsua Tsereteli
Tsikolia Tsobekhia Tsulukia Tsitava Tsatsua
Tsikolia Tsobekhia Tcharaia Chabrava Chakvetadze
Chania Chamagua Changelia Chaprava Chachava
Chachkhalia Changelia Chelidze Chemia Cherkezia
Chekheria Chepia Chikovani Chitanava Chikhladze
Chkadua Chkonia Choloraia Chkhvirdjia Chkhotua
Chochua Chkheidze Charaia Chilava Cholaria
Elerdjia Eteria Erkvania Khalia Kharbedia
Khazirishi Kharebua Kharchilava Khetsia Khvingia
Khidasheli Khochava Khorava Khazalia Kharazia
Kharzalia Kharibava Kharebava Khasaia Khvartskia
Khvitia Khvitishia Khonelia Khubutia Khubua
Elerdjia Eteria Ubiria Jvania Jorjoliani
Zantaria Zantaraia Zakaraia Zarandia Zarkua
Zarakua Zinzibadze. Vardania Vartagania Vekua

The Abkhaz surnames which has the Northern Caucasian origin are:

Achugba Amichba Ankvab Apba Akhba
Atsukhba Ashuba Abgadj Avidzba Ajiba
Akaba Abukhba Adleiba Akhsalba Aiba
Akusba Alshibaia Ampar Anshba Argun
Ardzinba Arshba Bazba Bartsits Bgajba
Bganba Bobir Bguets Butba Blabba
Gitsba Gunba Delba Dziba Dziapshba
Zukhba Ivanba Inarba Inal-Ipa Ivanshba
Kakoba Kapba Kove Kupalba Kutarba
Kazanba Karba Ketsba Kiut Kutsba
Kunba Lakrba Leiba Lakerbaia Lakoba
Lushba Mantoi Matsaba Mikanba Nanba
Otirba Orchuchba Panba Pateipa Papba
Sadzba Smir Simsim Tapants Tarkil
Tarba Tlifba Tujba Shakril Shlarba
Shamba Shugen Chachba Chukbar Chalmaz
Chanba Tseiba Tsvijba Tsimtsba Tsiba
Tsikhachba Tsushba Khashba Khashig Khikuba
Khishba Khakhba Khiba Khintba Khoperba
Khokerba Enik Eshba.


The Abkhaz surnames which has the differant (Turkish, Arab, persian, Russian) origin are:

Abas-ogli Adjar-ogli Zekir-ogli Imur-ogli Karial-ogli
Kazandji-ogli Kurt-ogli Mol-ogli Semidj-ogli Ozgan
Iskander Dadalit Feizba Tsargush Khagush
Khalbad Ebjnou Ermolov.

Some Abkhaz surname as : Bagapsh, Khalvash has mixt (Laz // Georgian and Arab) origin.
As we see more then 80 per cent of Abkhaz surnames are Georgians. The antropologists confirme this onomastic data. The Russia Anthropologist Alexeev Admited that Abkhazs are Georgians who begin to speak in Abaz language several centuries ago (infra).
Before the war tge Georgians presented about half of population of Abkhazia. Today in Abkhazia Georgians present the abused minority.
The majority of Georgians were exxpelled, thousands were massacred.
The Citizens of Russia live in the houses of killed and expelled Georgians.
The Abkhaz separatists try to hide the facts of genocide of the Georgian population undertaken by them and Russian military and civil men in Abkhazia in 1992-1993. Moreover, in spite of fact that this genocide were seen and recognised by Russian politicians and journalists themselves and condamned three times by OSCE, they try to transfere the responsability on the Georgian side, to accuse it in commetting of genocide of nongeorgian population in Abkhazia for the same period. Anri Djergenia, the « prosecutor of Abkhazia », published in 1995 « the preliminary materials of investigations of criminal cases on facts of massacre, the genocide and other grave crimes commeted by the authorities of Georgia and its armed formations in 1992-1993, during occupation of Abkhazia ».
Considering himself as the « General public prosecutor of Republic of Abkhazia, the State Advisor of Justice of 3th Class », the state crimminel Anry Djergenia tell nothing about the well known genocide commeted against the peacefull georgian population of Abkhazia. He cite only several dozens of witnesses of Abkhaz citizens as well as several witnesses of Russians and one turkish woman. Thus, «the General public prosecutor of Republic of Abkhazia» give NO SINGLE withness, case about genocide of Georgians. Anry Djergenia critisise Georgians of Abkhazia because they leaved the Abkhaz university, some other organisations. The Georgians were obliged to abandon even the Parliament, even the footbal team of Abkhazia because the Abkhazs conducted themself very aggressively. Each time Georgians leaved the bildings of Parliament, of University, of Police, of training club, etc because it was impossible to cohabite with aggressive Abkhazs.
In order to justify the genocide of Georgians, Anry Djergenia propose the falsificated history of Abkhazia.
He gave allussion that as the Abkhazs were partially expelled (by Russians) in XIX century from Abkhazia in Turkey, the massacre of Georgians brought a good results to Abkhaz people : the per centage of the Abkhazs in Abkhazia is now increased. As Georgian Stalin downgraduated the status of Abkhazia (it is wrong), now, after expelling and massacre of Georgians, Abkhazia become independent. As Georgians closed the Abkhaz schools and cultural centres (it is wrong), now it is time to close the Georgian schools and cultural centers in Abkhazia, etc. Such is a mentality of this « Abkhaz prosecutor ». He justify the fact that at first the Abkhaz separatists ilegally changed the name of Shota Rustaveli avenue’s one part and named it after the name of a younger Abkhaz poet Kogonia. Now he justify the fact that the whole former Rustaveli avenue bear the name of this Abkhaz who wrote about several dozens of verses. Anry Djergenia is happy that today in Abkhazia no one street, no one avenue, no one place, no one squere bear the name of Georgian personalities. He did not mention the fact that in Mid-July 1989 the Abkhazs beat the Georgian professors and students in Sukhumi Georgian School N-1, killed several persons. He appreciate the fact that this school today become Abkhaz school.
Anry Djergenia cite some Georgian authors from Georgian Press and gave the picture as if Georgian people intended to drow up Abkhazs from Abkhazia. It is wrong. For Stalin it was not difficult to exile Abkhazs from Georgia but it was not done, but tens of thousands of Georgians were expelled. In Abkhaz Press all Abkhaz authors wrote that Georgians are not indigenous population in Abkhazia and were inhabited there by Georgian Stalin. It is wrong : before the borning of Stalin the Georgians presented the majority of population of Abkhazia. The Georgian authors in general wrote about the double autochtonity of Abkhazia, i. e. according to the Georgian historiography, the Abkhazs and the Georgians BOTH ARE the indigenous peoples of Abkhazia. But when the Abkhazs begin wrote about the necessity of expell of Georgians from Abkhazia and even declared their protestes about settlement of several Georgian families (victime of earthquakes in Svaneti) in Abkhazia, several Georgian authors begin to wrote about the arrival of Apsua tribe (actual Abkhazs) in Abkhazia several centuries before. Anry Djergenia gathered and published such of articles and conclude that this was the opinion of whole Georgian people. It is a truth that the ancestors of Apsua people came down in Abkhazia from the North Caucasus after XV century, but Georgians considered and consider Abkhaz people as indigenous people of whole Georgia. Anry Djergenia keep silence on this question and cite only those Georgian authors (Revaz Mishveladze, for exemple) who wrote about the recent arrival of Apsua in Abkhazia. In opinion of Djergenia, the article of Mishveladze published in pluralist Georgian Press justify the expell of one querter million of Georgian refugees and the massacre of thousands of Georgians.
Anry Djergenia speak in a such a voice as if the scale and the form of Abkhaz casualties enter in the frame of genocide and the scale and form of casualties of Georgians can not be considered as genocide. Djergenia conclude : « The evil deeds made by the [Georgian] occupational authorities, should cause response (не могли не вызвать ответной реакции). It is a lot of cases of infringements of human rights have been admitted also by representatives the Abkhaz side and to it there can be no justification. Any such fact is not left without reaction by the forces of law and order of the Republic of Abkhazia. Against many persons are undertaken legal actions and are condemned to severe measures of punishment for fulfilment of crimes against any citizen of Republic Abkhazia irrespective of its national identity». It is not true. NO SINGLE Abkhaz crimminel was imprisoned because the all political abkhaz leadership should be put in prison. Of course it was not done.
As far Georgian leaderships, Djergenia published three documents which were discovered after expelling of Georgians from Abkhazia. According to Abkhaz prosecutor these documents tesify about the Georgian crime. In reality they show that in difference of Abkhaz leadership, the local Georgian leadership made all possible to avoid the heavy crimminal situation in Abkhazia. Here are three documents cited by Djergenia:
The head of administration of Gagra wrote to Ed. Shevardnadze: «At the same time we are disturbed by one question. In connection with comming of new units for these 4-5 days, in a city actually the life has complicated, one plunder houses and apartments. One begun with a robbery of the Abkhaz houses, then continued to rob Armenian, Russian houses, and now started to rob the Georgian apartments. In a city actually does not remain any private or state cars which would not take out. I am disturbed more by the political importance of this process. The population of other nationalities has already kept distance from the Georgian people. A discontent tendency against army is felt also among the Georgians of Gagra and it can cause undesirable results as there are in our city a numerous groups of supporters of Zviad Gamsakhurdia who conduct undesirable propaganda; and a robbery undertaken by the armed units pours water on their mill… The process becomes uncontrollable as the control over various units is actually impossible. Probably, it is necessary to allocate urgently group of the Ministry of Defence in due time to supervise army units, otherwise we will politically lose struggle».
O. Benidze, the Minister of Justice of Abkhazia, addressed on January 20, 1993 a letter to PM Tamaz Nadareishvili: “As you know, in the last years in connection with a difficult political situation, and also with deep crisis in economy and social sphere in Republic Georgia, there is critical crimminal situation. This situation is even more aggravated in Autonomous republic [of Abkhazia] in connection with the martial law. Especially dangerous crimes are committed and the majority of them have the organised character. The criminal element has got into all spheres of a life. Frankly speaking, the forces of the law and order are unable to do something. It is promoted, in most cases, by the weighty objective reasons”.
The subcolonel R. Rapava, chief of the police of Sukhumi district wrote: ”In a city reigns a heavy crimminal situation, the robberies, marauding, stealings of motor vehicles etc are continuing. For the last night is fixed about 200 calls of citizens who asked for aid. The considerable quantity of marauding is made both by criminals and guardsmen... A considerable quantity of volunteers arrive in a city “for offer the aid” and among them are a lot of criminals... Practically there is no possibility to make investigations”.
These three document published by Djergenia are difficult to verify but even in case if we will consider them as authentics they show the desire of Georgian authorities to prevent in Abkhazia the crimes which were commetted by population as well as by one part of persons who were dressed in uniform of the Georgian Guard.
Djergenia speak in a such a voice as if all such of crimes were commeted after the enter of Georgian Guard in Abkhazia, i. e. after August 14, 1992.
In reality, such crimes in Abkhazia were commeted before this date: about 7 billion dollar of dammage caused to Armenia and Georgia the blokada of railway auto road in Abkhazia. Many personnalities were abducted, killed or returned after paying some ransoms in Abkhazia; the robbery, organised crime were frorished there. Such was a crimminal situation in Abkhazia before August 14, 1992. The 400 Georgian policemen and Guardsmen entered in Abkhazia in order to restore the railway communication but the Abkhaz crimminels oppened the fire to them.
Namely after this act the situation become incontrolable. Djergenia keep silence about the Abkhaz subversive activity in Gali and Ochemchire regions. The Abkhaz «partisans» exploded the railway, the bridges, the Georgian villages, raped the Georgian women, etc.
The Georgian side was oblige to risponse.
When there is a war it is difficult to control the crimminal situation, of course all wars in the world was accompagnied by the killing, robberry and other kind of crimes but the question is wither the any political party or government or administration or military commandment elaborated a plan for massacre a population, the war prisoniers, etc.
In this point is proved that the Georgian side tried to prevent the number of casualties among the Abkhaz populations while the Abkhaz side planified the massacre of more and more Georgians possible.
That is why Anry Djergenia accuse the World who neglect by the « genocide » of Abkhaz population. There was not genocide of Abkhaz population but was a large scale genocide of Georgian population. Djergenia wrote : « The policy of the double standard of the international organisations concerning Abkhazia and Georgia has generated at last consciousness of permissiveness and impunity. Objectively this policy is connivance to continuation of criminal activity against Abkhazia».
In reality, because of Russian «peacekeepers» who did not allow the representatives of the Prosecutor of Georgia to investigate in place the thousands of facts of massacre of Georgians, the proceeding against the Abkhaz and Russian crimminels failed. In order to hide their crime, the Russians evacuated the rests of the massacred Georgian bodies. This is one more reason for which Georgians are not allow to return in Abkhazia. Russia protect its crime against humanity in this manner. So, one part of Georgians were massacred and the other are not authorise by the invadors to return in their houses.
The Abkhaz victimes' witnesses proposed by Anry Djergenia are in their great majority exagerated and falsificated. The Abkhaz separatists did not allow the Georgian Prosecutors represantatives to participate in the investigation as far the Abkhaz victims affairs. Djergenia also refused to Georgian prosecutor investigate the places of mass burial, exumate them in order to establish the reason of death, to investigate the withnesses in the place of crime, etc. The Russians and Abkhaz sides want to hide their crime and postphone the process.
During the war Shevardnadze officially anounced the orders do not destruct Gudauta and Tkvarcheli, two cities full by Abkhaz population and Abkhaz refugees. As far Russians and Abkhazs, they firstly obliged Georgians to sign in Jule 27, 1993 in Sochi the ceasefire agreement, incited the Georgians to return in Abkhazia and then organised the general attack, seized the territory from Sukhumi till Enguri river through massacring the thousands of peacefull Georgian civilians. The name of this perfide act is genocide, i. e. well organised massacre of non desired population. As we know after the aggression in August 2008, Russia illegaly put in Abkhazia 4000 soldats, illegally construct several military bases besides of as if demantelled Gudauta base : all of this steps were impossible to undertake under presence of Georgian population in Abkhazia. That is why Russian and Abkhaz authorities planified from the beginning the destruction of the Georgian population of Abkhazia.
Anry Djergenia also cite G. Karkarashvili the commander of armies of the State Council who has told in August 24, 1992 : ”I Can immidiately assure, especially supporters of mister Ardzinba, those separatists who under a name of any “Mountainous Union” wish to disturb the peace of inhabitants… They will find here a common grave… I Warn, from now that the georgian side will be forbidden to capture the prisonners of war… Those who will meet the governmental armies with the weapons, will get under action of the order did not take the prisonniers… In case if the negotiations be not achieved success, I can assure these separatists, that if from the total number of Georgian is die one handred thousands Georgians, then from yours side will be lost all 97 thousand, who will support decisions of Ardzinba”.
Of course, the statement of Karkarashvili is not politically correct nor warmongering. In the statement we clearly see that Karkarashvili did not desire the war, the destruction of Georgian and Abkhaz fighters, peoples. He WARN the illegal Abkhaz gardsmen to respect the constitution of Georgia, its territorial integrity, do not attack the legal Georgian Guard and to let them possibility to control the railway and roads. If the Georgian Guard is attacked, the Georgian side will destruct everyone who will shot down Guard, - warned Karkarashvili. Thus, the words of Karkarashvili can not be used as argument in favor of « genocide » of Abkhazs because the statement is preventive and it warn the Abkhazs crimminels of a danger.
Of course, there was some abuses against Abkhazs undertaken by the crimminels (including Georgian crimminels) but the scale of such abuses are not significant even for the not numerous people as are Abkhazs and they can not be considered as genocide. In general, the Abkhazs were abused when the member of their families participated in attack against Georgian Guard, in massacre of Georgian villages in Gali and Ochemchire regions, in explosion of the roads, railway, etc.
Anry Djergenia published the witnesses of the families of the Abkhaz «partisans» but hide the crime commetted by these crimminels. Often he invant the crimes, some crimes commeted by unknown persons he attribute to Georgians.
Actually the Abkhaz separatists declare that the Abkhaz muhadjirs who has emigrated from Abkhazia in Turkey in XIX century because of repressive policy of the Tsarist Russia will return to Abkhazia. Some turkish citizens who has a Abkhaz origin illegally visited Abkhazia (without Georgian visas) but they are not ready to settle massively in Abkhazia. There are in Turkey the considereable number of those who can be invited by separatist government in the houses of expelled Georgians .
First of all in Abkhazia must be returned the recently expelled Georgian population (about one quarter million) and the result of ethnic cleansing must be concealed, i. e. the 46% rate of Georgian population in Abkhazia must be restored.
The Georgian refugees must be returned without any conditions, as for exemple, the refusal of the citizenship of Georgia and acceptance of the citizenship of Abkhazia.
At least, in Abkhazia can be adopted the double nationality, i. e. those who desire to keep the Russian nationality must be allowed to do it as well as the Georgians and those who desire to keep the Georgian citizenship must be allowed to do it.



This post has been edited by badriko on 23 Dec 2008, 20:38
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